How We Teach Reading

For a quick overview of how Online Reading Tutor works, view or short video:

Online Reading Tutor offers a structured and sequential training program that targets skills essential for proficient reading. The program delivers explicit instruction in the foundation skills of reading and then provides the student with the opportunity to apply that knowledge in comprehension exercises.

The Steps To Reading Proficiency

The Steps To Reading Proficiency

Our students achieve significant and permanent gains through our patented, research-based model that builds strong roots in the five areas outlined by the National Reading Panel:

  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Decoding Fluency
  • Vocabulary
  • Comprehension

 

 

We improve reading comprehension by developing fluent, automatic decoding skills. Phonemic and sound-symbol association exercises are exactly what Dr Sally Shawitz recommends for struggling readers: rhyming, sound match beginning, sound match end, sound match middle, blending, segmentation etc.  The phonics (sound-symbol association) instruction builds understanding of the alphabet principle through exercises that address letter to sound mapping, consonant and vowel blends , diphthongs, spelling conventions and word building.

In this blending exercise the student hears four different phonemes and then chooses the correct word.

blending

In this word building exercise, the student hears the target word “rub” and then uses the mouse to drag and drop the letter into the gold bubbles to build the word. This exercise is an example of segmentation and is one of our phonological awareness exercises.

phonics

The reading fluency exercises teaches students to identify and match high frequency spelling patterns of consonants and vowels in order to facilitate accurate and fluent decoding. This also  corrects mirror image symmetry errors that affect many struggling readers.

In the visual match activity, students are given a set of 50 exercises where they select the answer that matches the target word or pseudo word. The program measures how accurately students answer each question and the consistency in their pace. The goal is to develop fluent, automatic decoding skills. Students identify and associate the sounds of written high frequency patterns of consonants and vowels. Students train to a high degree of accuracy and consistency of response times, improving fluency and decoding of text.  This is an Orton-Gillingham based multi-sensory approach.

Dr Stanislas Dehaene, in his book Reading In The Brain describes mirror image errors that impairs the reading of some dyslexic readers.

“Early in life virtually all children make mirror errors in reading and writing. Indeed the ability to generalize across symmetrical views, which facilitates view-variant object recognition, is one of the essential competencies of the visual system. When children learn to read, they must “unlearn” mirror generalization in order to process “b” and “d” as distinct letters.In some children, this unlearning process, which goes against the spontaneous abilities inherited from evolution seems to present a specific source of impairment” (bold is my emphasis)

visual match

Online Reading Tutor’s visual match training corrects  mirror image errors like b / d, & p / q, ba/ab. dib/bid

In our auditory visual match exercises students hear the target letter pattern and simultaneously see three choices. The student chooses and the program measures how accurately students answer each question and the consistency in their pace. The goal is for students to develop automatic and fluent decoding skills.

av match

The automatic decoding of pseudo words is key feature of effective reading programs.

“Good decoding skills do not arise from associations between letters and speech sounds alone – letters must also be perceived in their proper orientation, at the appropriate spatial location, and in their correct left-right order. In the young reader’s brain collaboration must take place between the ventral visual pathway, which recognizes the identity of letters and words, and the dorsal pathway, which codes for their location in space and programs eye movements and attention. When one of these actors stumbles, reading falls flat on its face.” ~ Dr Stanislas Dehaene, Reading In The Brain , page 298

Although the auditory-visual match decoding exercises can be challenging and may take several sessions to master, they are very effective for helping struggling readers. The emphasis on decoding pseudo words is exactly what reading researchers like Dr Sally Shaywitz recommends.  According to Dr. Sally Shaywitz, “The best ability to read pseudo words is the best measure of phonological decoding skill in children.  The reader literally has to penetrate the sound structure of the word and sound it out, phoneme by phoneme; there is no other way.” (Overcoming Dyslexia, Dr. Shaywitz, 2003, p. 133-134)  These pseudo words have not been seen before or memorized.  Dyslexics cannot hide behind the words, guessing, and hoping they are right.  They either have the decoding skills necessary or they do not.

Not only are pseudo words used in diagnosing dyslexia, they are also used in teaching reading to dyslexics.  They are used to eliminate guessing; there is no way to guess a nonsense word.  If a student cannot guess the word, they have to use their decoding skills. These words help them to focus on sounding words out from left to right.  Using pseudo words helps to train the dyslexic’s brain and gets them  on track with their phonological decoding.

 Vocabulary – Structured exercises include questions about the meaning of words in context.

vocabulary Comprehension – Students apply their improved decoding skills by reading connected text in high-interest subjects and genres that correlate to state standards.  After reading the passages silently to themselves, students answer a variety of multiple choice questions that determine retention and assess comprehension skills such as author’s intent, main idea, inference. etc.

comprehension

The comprehension lessons cover grade 1 through college.